Ecological problems

Negative action on to sea ecology produce:
1) oil-gas complex (prospecting, extraction, transporting, processing of oil);
2) enterprises of the chemical, metallurgical, processing industry, energetic complex, food industry, agriculture, public utilities;
3) pollution under influence of sea level oscillations, land flooding, and shores melioration.

1. The most unfavorable ecological action on the Northern Pricaspian territory is connected with development of Karachaganakski oil-gas-condensate deposit, having high content of sulpharic admixtures, whick is often undeway with crude violation of nature protection demands. As this takes place, large areas of land are removed from agricultural turnover, thousands of tons of noxious substances, including sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, are discarded in to atmosphere [Ecological problems in Kazakhstan. // Sayakhat-2002.- ¹7, pp 4-5. (in Russian)]. Sulphur after purification of oil, storing on the open air, under definite climatic conditions can transform into numerous noxious chemical compounds and produce unfavorable effect on the environment [Serikov F.T., Orazbaev B.B. Ecological monitoring of Kazakhstanic sector of Caspian sea and of deposition of Tengiz. // Higher school of Kazakhstan – 2002-¹3. pp. 116-127. (in Russian)].

Persaline deposits of Gran, Martyshi, Zhanatalap, Karazhanbas are exploitated in Atyrau province at the Caspian sea shelf are exploitated during more than 30 years, and the deposit of Tengis is in work from the year 1993. Hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulphide, oxides of sulphur, nitrogen, carbon are in the composition of the ejections. These substances are gotten into atmosphere, are adsorbing by underlying surface, with what change natural conditions of biota existence. Caspian waters analyses along Tengis shore show that except oil pollutions there are going in the water, the accumulation of the synthetic surface-active substances, phenols, oil products and heavy metals which occupy a special place among polluting substances because they are not subjected to chemical and biological decomposition, and in the increased concentrations the produce noxious effect onto water ecological systems [Kenzhegaliev A.K., Khasanova A.A., Moiseeva G.P. Ecological state of Atyrau province in connection with industrial development of Caspian sea shelf. // Vestnik of Atyrau Oil and Gas Institute.- 2002.- ¹1-2. pp. 171-173. (in Russian)].

2. A great problem of Mangystau province pollution is connected with extraction of uranium ore and nuclear energetics on its territory. Open uranium pits, lake-tails storage of Koshkarata, many dumping grounds, which are the sources of radio-active pollution were left in the result of ecological standards violation. Koshkarata is a dischargeless depression into which in the year of 1965 have been discarded and poured more than 400 mln tons of toxic and radio active wastes of processing enterprises, including 105 mln tons of wastes of uranium production [Butyrina N. Prohibited plays with nature. Nature does not forgive mistakes. // Caspian Research.- 2002, -¹4, pp 84-86. (in Russian)].

Burial of drilling wastes, representing themselves a semiliquid mass and solid residue, directly in slime barns on the territory of boreholes after preliminary drying of their content is practiced in Kazakhstan But such a burial does not prevent environment pollution because pollutants contained in these wastes because of their mobility and high permeability migrate into grounds causing negatives processes in them [Kudaikulova G.A, Zemtseva M.B. Drilling wastes burials polygons- the most accessible method of their liquidation. // Industry of Kazakhstan.-2003.- ¹3 (18). pp. 60-63. (in Russian)].

3. Formation peculiarities of the upper stage of groundwaters and development of flooding on Caspian sea shore are determined mainly by the intensity of technogenic development of the territory at the natural conditions present. Hydrogeologial situation investigations allow to say that Caspian sea level oscillations taking place during last 20 years, do not practically influence onto flooding development at this region because process has formed long ago before level rise beginning under influence of such technogenic factors, as irrigation systems and build up. Inasmuch as flooding process has been taken place during prolonged period of time, now large areas of the territories have become flooded. This has fundamentally changed the ecological situation at this region. Because of this it is further advisable to forecast not the flooding zone increase during water level rise, but the change of ecological and economic situation. Danger of the further process development on the territory investigated must be determined by economic and ecological damage [Kazakova I.G. Flooding development peculiarities on Russian shore of Caspian sea. 4 th Int.Congress “Water: ecology and technology”, EKVATEK-2000, pp. 239. (in Russian)].

Sea level oscillations and surge phenomena cause at the environment a series of negative ecological processes, influencing the state and character of soil and vegetable cover, air pollution and creating the menace of appearing of potential technogenic earthquakes [Ecological problems in Kazakhstan. // Sayakhat-2002.- ¹7, pp 4-5. (in Russian)]. As sea level rise are considerably shortened the areas of coastal solonchaks, groundwater level rise and transposition of halophytic belt of vegetation upstairs by profile from more salted grounds onto lesser salted has taken place. Such transposition characterises the increase of salination of the surface layer of soil [Kuleshova L.V. Methods of quanty estimation of vegetable dynamis on Caspian sea shore under its level change. 3 th Int. Congress “Water: ecology and technology”, EKVATEK-1998, pp. 80-81. (in Russian)] and leads to soil desertation. As the most active factor of desertation is anthropogenic reorganization of ecological systems of this region [Akiyanova F.Zh., Nurmambetov E.I., Kurochkina P.Ya. et al. Desertation of Kazakhstanian part of Pricaspian region. // Deserts development problems.- 2001.- ¹ 2.- pp. 12-19. (in Russian)]. Now loss of high-productive spawning places of valuable species of fishes at the lower part of the delta of the river Volga is taking place, and in comparison with the year 1983, their catch are decreased 8-10 times.

In the result of the sharp rise of sea level have strengthened surge phenomena-waves of the height more than 3 m are expanded deep into the shore for the distance of more than 20 km; coasts are destroyed with the velocity up to 10 m/year; soils are flooded with the velocity of 1-2 km/year; are destroyed or are under menace of breakdown the whole blocks of inhabited buildings, industrial, energetic and consumer service enterprises, transporting communications [Kazimiruk V.D. Modern hydroecological problems of Volga delta and northern Caspian region. 4 th Int. Congress “Water: ecology and technology”, EKVATEK-2000, p 84. (in Russian)]. Surges create damage situations on the oilfields, in the result of which sea aquatory is polluted by oil products.

Inundation and flooding of the populated areas, agricultural lands, irrigation systems, oilfields, roads, electric current lines and sewage disposal constructions leads to additional pollution of surface and groundwaters with toxic substances and oil products, conditions of water supply are worsened [Kazimiruk V.D. Modern hydroecological problems of Volga delta and northern Caspian region. 4 th Int. Congress “Water: ecology and technology”, EKVATEK-2000, p 84. (in Russian)]. There are at the boundaries of western Kazakhstan, over 140 potential sources of groundwaters pollution, from them more than 50 are determined as already acting dangerous and moderately dangerous pollutands of waters with economic-potable purpose [Pritchin A.I., Isak E.A. Ecological aspects of groundwaters utilization of Western Kazakhstan // Young scientists to the 10 th anniversary of independence of Kazakhstan: Proceedings of Int. Conference.-Almaty: KazNTU, 2001. Part.2. pp. 274-277. (in Russian)].

Thus, tehnogenic impact has universal character and leads to the change of atmosphere, surface-and groundwaters regime, landscapes transformation, development of geochemical and thermal anomalies with rapture of inner equiliblium of the interior of the earth.

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