Problems of water and ecology

Problems of transboundary transfer of polluting substances through river systems both in the light of estimation of role of separate regions and water users in pollution of transboundary rivers, and in the sense of the general problems of regulation of inter-State interests and problems in the field of use and protection of surface waters are especially sharp put in worlds practice [Dzhabasov M.Kh., Karagodin P.F., Oshlakov G.G., Geological-Hydrogeological conditions of Southern-Pribalkhashski depression in the light of the new data/In the book: “Regional hydrogeological investigations in Kazakhstan”. Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1971. pp. 51-57 (in Russian)].

As the peculiarity of the natural water resources in modern conditions is the fact that water participate not only in natural, but also in anthropogenic cycle, and this can considerably effect onto steady-state ecological equilibrium in nature [Oganesyan K., Grigoryan A., Ecological drowdawn value estimation in transboundary rivers. EKVATEK –2004, part 1, pp. 99-100 (in Russian)], [Oganesyan K., Tadevosyan G., Concerning the problem of utilization of transboundary water resources. EKVATEK –2004, part 1, pp. 52 (in Russian)].

As the main consumer of water resources in Kazakhstan, as also in other countries of Central-Asian region, is irrigation, on the part of which accounts more than 90% of the total potential of the surface discharge. Tense water-economical situation, caused by water resources shortage and water sources pollution occurs practically on the whole of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Now as the basic problems of the two-sided relations of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Peoples Republic of China in plan of joint use of water resources is problem water intake increase on the territory of PRC from transboundary rivers of Ile and Ertys (from 0,5-1 to 2-4 km3/year) [Transboundary waters in Kazakhstan: our limited resource. EkoVesti, ¹2-3 (40-41), February, 2005, PP.2-5 (in Russian)]. This entails a series of the negative consequences for Kazakhstan both of social-economical (desorganization of some industrial enterprises, losses in fish and agricultural economy, water pollution with industrial wastes), and of ecological character (climate aridization, disturbance of the natural water balance and natural equilibrium) [Guseva L., Problem of utilization of water resources of transboundary rivers in Kazakhstanic – Chinese relations. EkoVesti, ¹ 4-5 (42-43), March, 2005, pp.4-6 (in Russian)].

River Ile gives about 80% of the whole of water discharge of the lake Balkhash, 70% of it is forming on the territory of China, where intensive development of agriculture develops hazard of further lowering of water discharge into lake Balkhash. Not only organic substances but also selenium and heavy metals ions, the basic sources of which are waste waters of tanneries of PRC [Kanaeva R., Ile-Balkhash basin: problems and perspectives of the stable development. EKVATEK –2004, part 1, pp. 39-40 (in Russian)] are arriving into the lake with waters of transboundary rivers coming through the territory of China. Now water of the river Ile has suspended substances in the amount of 164 mg/l in autumn and 1300 mg/l in spring. Amount of phenols surpasses MPC (maximally permissible concentration) 5-12 times that copper – 5-6, that of zinc 1-1,7 times, aluminium – up to 100 times, iron – up to 5 times and periodical excess of lead –1,6 times [Tyumenov S. Modern state of irrigation development in Ile-Balkhash basin// Scientific investigations in melioration and water economy: Proceedings of scientific works of KazNIIVKh-Taraz: Investigational Centre “Akva”, 2001- Vol.38. issue 2.pp.164-168 (in Russian)]. Landscape-ecological estimation of Ile-Balkhash region is characterized by the growth of pollution and mineralization surface- and ground-waters, lowering of bioproductivity and purifying function of the Ile river delta, degradation of water-swamp lands, progressing process of anthropogenic aridization [Budnikova T. et al. Landscape-ecological estimation of Ile-Balkhash region// Deserts development problems. –2001. ¹ 2. pp 19-26 (in Russian)]. Lower part of the river Ile is subjected to especially large negative influence, to environment degradation and to loss of productivity of irrigated agriculture because of soils salinization. In connection with this, problems connected with rational utilization of land and water resources, ground- and surface-waters protection from impoverishment and pollution are very actual.

The works [Karabaev Zh., Obrevko L. Modern state of Kazakhstanic transboundary water resources. EkoVesti, ¹ 9 (47-49), June, 2005. pp.3-5 (in Russian)], [Tursunov A., et al. Discharge change tendency for transboundary river Ile, the most importent tributary of the lake Balkhash.//Modern problems of hydrogeology of intracontinental basins of Central Asia: Reports for international scientific-practical Conference, city of Almaty, January 22-23, 2003.-Almaty: Institute of geography of MON RK, 2003, pp 152-156 (in Russian)], [Bazarbaev A. Transboundary rivers discharge utilization problems.//Scientific investigation in melioration and water economy. Proceedings of scientific works of KazNIIVKh-Taraz: Investigational Centre “Akva”, 2001- Vol.38. Issue 2.pp. 44-52 (in Russian)], [Mambetkaziev E, et al. Ecological problems and surface waters protection of transboundary basin of river Ertys. // Ecology of Eastern Kazakhstan: problems and decisions; Reference-informational Vest.- 2002. ¹ 4, pp.37-40 (in Russian)] are also dedicated to the modern state and ecological problems of transboundary rivers flowing through the territory of Kazakhstan.

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